drawing / charcoal: Cheng Yen Lin

Let's tell the story of a great writer from whom all the great masters of the word have learned. He creates artistic patterns that have been in constant interest for centuries. Literary craftsmanship turns the talented Frenchman Jean-Baptiste Poklen, who called himself Moliere, into a celebrity.


Its impact on the language and literature of France is unsurpassed. The same thing that Ivan Vazov does with the Bulgarian language, showing his power and the "melody" of his "sounds sweet", also achieves Moliere with his native language. Therefore, to this day they call the French "the language of Moliere", as the German is "the language of Goethe", the Italian "the language of Dante" and the Spanish "the language of Cervantes".


For Moliere's enormous influence in the cultural life of France, legends lie. One of these states that when the greatest ruler in the history of France, the Sun King Louis XIV, asked the writer Boallo: "How will future generations remember my rule?" Nicolas Boallo said to him, "Moliere!" by spiritual innovators not only in France but also in Europe. His work is detached from the religious root from which the works of his contemporaries invariably grow. Moliere murmurs against religious dogmas, the conquest of the Parvenues, and the pious hypocrisy he masterfully exposes in Tartuffe, his most popular work.


In those times, criticizing the Church was interpreted as an extremely daring act. Moliere raises constant disputes and scandals, is banned, prosecuted, prosecuted and even arrested. At the request of the Archbishop of Paris, Tartuffe's production was banned. Moliere is the most scandalous figure of the seventeenth century, he is the great provocateur of France from the era of the Sun King.

Works of Moliere

Jean-Baptiste Poklen was born in Paris in January 1622. He is descended from a family of hereditary upholsterers and furniture dealers. 


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In 1631, his father purchased the honorary and very lucrative post of King's Upholsterer. His mother died the same year. By the age of 14, Jean-Baptiste was invariably in his father's workshop. She does not get any primary education, she barely learns to read and write at home. His father thinks elementary literacy is sufficient for a future upholster. However, the young man is fascinated by books. His desire is to do art, not crafts. Jean-Baptiste realizes that if he wants to succeed, he will have to do so despite his esnafically inclined parent and without his help.


The youngster loves to go to theater with his grandfather, who is the only one in the family who has interests in the arts. It was his grandfather who supported his desire to study. He helped him enroll in one of the most elite schools of the time - the Jesuit College of Clermont in Paris. There, the future writer becomes associated with Prince Conti, who will become a financial benefactor to his theatrical troupe over time. Jean-Baptiste spends college between 1636 - 1641. However, he is not sure how regularly he attends the school in question, known for its strict discipline and religious order. He does get a diploma, though, and is probably introduced to some of the prototypes of his immortal hero - the hypocritically pious Tartuffe.


After leaving college, he received a law degree from the University of Orleans, which was allegedly purchased by his father. Jean-Baptiste never works as a lawyer, nor is his name entered into any law firm. Instead, he briefly takes up his father's job and accompanies the monarch on a tour of the South of France in 1642. During his journey, he decides to indulge in his passion for theater and to dump everything else. Moliere is a free-spirited, gentle-sex lover and rebel at heart, and his subordination to the rules is out of character. He believes that natural intelligence will help him to compensate for the lack of systematic education.


Having received part of his maternal inheritance, Jean-Baptiste hurries to move out of his father's house in 1643. On 30 on June 13 that year, a notary public, young Poklen and nine of his friends, set up a theater company called "Famous Theater." From this date, literally until his breath, he will indulge in theater, stage and creativity. The beginning of a new life was set when Jean-Baptiste Poklen accepts the creative alias Moliere. There are different versions of the origin of the name "Moliere": it is possible to take it at the suggestion of his acquaintance, musician and dancer Louis de Moliere, to be named after the famous writer at the time, François de Moliere, or simply as fashion was then - he chooses a stage name deriving from some feudal possession in France (de Moliere).


Moliere falls in love with his colleague at the Famous Theater, Madeleine Bejar, and so begins a long series of adventures and adventures. Moliere is both an author of theater productions, an actor, director and a major shareholder in his theater. His corpse, however, did not perform well and a rapid bankruptcy ensued. Moliere, who bets his entire fortune on her, has been sent to jail for debt. From there, two days later, his father plagues him, who pays on his behalf. Even that doesn't break him, he continues to write and make plans. The following is an 13 yearly odyssey of a troupe in the countryside (mainly southern France), from 1645 to 1658.


The well-deserved literary glory overtakes Moliere when he is 36 years old. The troupe returns triumphantly to Paris, where it has the honor to perform in front of the King himself. For the rest of his life, Moliere will remain in the capital, expressing himself with varying success on the scene, engrossing in many intrigues, earning in his turn influential friends but also great foes and enemies. His plays are all too often welcomed "by the knife" by critics, and his name is deliberately slandered. In 1662, Moliere got into an intimate relationship and then married Armanda Bejar, the daughter of his ex-beloved Madeleine, who is twenty years younger than him. Evil tongues give rise to rumors that Armand is his daughter and urges the Church to intervene in this incestuous relationship. Moliere combats the attacks. He was promoted to royal comedian at Louis XIV. Subsequently, he was replaced by high office, but at least he has the peace to create and deliver performances - the thing he knows best and loves most.


Why is Moliere's work important to us today, what lesson does it teach us? The audacious words of the characters in the comedian Moliere are intended to harass those in power and expose public evils. The Moliere heroes "live" in every society, and there are among us today, except by other names. Before Moliere, no artist could create such masterpieces with so many memorable types. Moliere's Tartuffe is the image of the hypocrite and the crook, as Don Quixote of Cervantes is the image of the dreamer idealist, and Gogol's Box is the image of the miser. In order to create such a striking image, the writer must be endowed with great artistic skill. And Moliere is both very talented and challenging to others. Appearing among the royal society of noblemen - noblemen, he denounces their exaggerated sophistication and mocks their pronged noses. Particularly beloved to the audience, the image of his comedies becomes "Monsieur Jourdain" - "The Noble Bourgeois." Jourdain is a typical partnered, determined to accommodate himself at any cost in the midst of aristocrats, among secular society. Jourdain has absurdly ridiculous intentions - despite his lack of talent and advanced age, he began to make music because "so did other aristocrats." While the devoutly pious Tartuffe apologizes for his actions with "heaven," he claims that because of "eternal heaven," he will silence any reproach. And he is silent, though they rebuke him quite rightly, and his kindness is reproached.


Moliere's comedies are certainly "raising the degree" of excitement among fans of theatrical arts. We are excited today as Moliere plays on stage all the time. Loved and hated by his contemporaries, he nowadays receives the well-deserved recognition - the first great French writer of modern times.

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