There is so much written about blasphemy, but very little is actually known. It is not even explicitly stated whether pop Bogomil is a true historical figure. The dating of the Bogomil Gospel is questioned. Recently, it has been suggested that this Bogomil book was written in the I - II century AD. (before there is Danube Bulgaria), with Pope St. Clement of Rome named as its author. His relics were transferred from Kherson by the holy brothers Cyril and Methodius as a result of their Khazar mission. Such a pre-dating of Bogomilism allows it to be associated only with the Thracian orphism, and not, as is traditionally considered so far in the circles of specialists, with Nestorianism, Masalianism, Manicheanism and Pavlikianism. In all this chaos of influences, trends, mixes, etc., by pagan and heretical rituals and dogmas, the interest in Bogomilism remains unadulterated, despite or precisely because of its mysterious nature.

Since blasphemy is a heresy regarding Orthodoxy, it is good to know exactly how the difference between the two is expressed. Both Orthodoxy and Bogomilism have their own cosmogony, Christology and eschatology.

What does all this mean? In the most general form, cosmogony is the story of the creation of the universe and of living beings, Christology is the story of Jesus Christ coming on earth and of his nature, and eschatology tells us what the end of the world will be and what will be the destiny of man. The three are an integral part of the biblical narrative.

The historical source from which the most complete and authentic information about the dogmas of Bogomilism is derived is the so-called. The Secret Book (Bogomil Gospel), with the full title, "Asking the Apostle Evangelist John at the Last Supper of the King of Heaven for the rule of this world, for his ruler, and for Adam." Heresy, who preaches worship in Christian cosmogony, expresses that he sees the creative beginning of the world not only in the Father, but also in his servant (or son, dependent on interpretation), Satan / Satanail / Samail. Satan tried to revolt against the Father by bribing a third of the angels of heaven, promising them lower taxes if they gave up their service with the Father and became his servants. With pride and treachery, Satan challenged God. God punished all the angels renouncing him, led by Satan, and they fell to the ground.

Here's what the Secret Book says about Satan's actions on earth:

4. "So he sat on the firm ground and led the angel who was above the air and (to the one) above the waters and they lifted the earth up and it became dry. And he took the crown of the angel that was over the waters, and from one half made the light of the moon, and the other half the light of the stars, and made all the host of stars from the stones. And then he made his servants, the angels, according to the primordial nature of the Most High, and at the behest of the invisible Father, thunder, rain and snow. And he sent angels, his servants, over them, and led them to produce every bird and reptile, trees and grass. And they led the sea to produce fish and birds of the sky. "

5. "Besides, think and make man in your likeness." Satan, not God, is pointed out as the creator of the visible world, of matter.

The story in The Secret Book goes on:

"The creator of evil so thought in his mind to make paradise, made people and led them to bring them. And he planted the reed in the midst of paradise, and hid in it his evil spirit, lest they should know his deceit. And he came in, and spoke to them, saying, "Eat of every fruit that is in paradise, but of the fruit of knowledge, of good and evil, only you shall not eat!" But the devil went into the evil serpent and seduced the angel, who was in the form of a woman, and his brother poured out his sinful lust and satisfied his lust with Eve when the serpent was hissed. And that is why they are called devil births and snake births, which fulfill the lust of their father - the devil, until the end of this world. "Therefore, according to the" Secret Book "of the Bogomil teaching, humans are devilish creatures," devil births and the serpent, and Satan is their father.

Because of his atrocities on earth, Satan had to be punished again. To this end, God sent his son Jesus, who tried to resist the Devil but unsuccessfully, was crucified and turned back to the Father. However, there was a new appearance of Jesus on earth on the Day of Judgment, when "Satan and all his army will be bound and thrown into the lake of fire." As Evil will eventually be defeated, Bogomilism should not be counted as extremely dualistic sects, in the sense of affirming the eternal struggle and equivalence between Good and Evil. Because Evil, first and foremost, is and will be subordinate to the Good.

So, let's see the main heretical moments in the worship of the moment, referring to the "Secret Book".

1) The Old Testament is denied. It is not God who created the world, but Satan.

2) Denies the single divine creative beginning of the world. As the creator, he is called an evil spirit, the "fallen angel" - Satan, whose births are all human beings.

What do we know from the historical sources of worship? It should be pointed out that the most authentic type is the written evidence of domestic, Bulgarian character. The Bulgarian writer from the 10th c. Presv. Kozma wrote in the Conversation against the Bogomils the following: "It happened in the years of the orthodox Tsar Peter in Bulgarian land that a pop named Bogomil appeared, and more precisely, Bohunemil, who first began to preach heresy in the Bulgarian land and whose glory will be discussed later. "

In the synagogue of Boril from the beginning of the XIII century, around 1211, (with additions at the end of XIV - the beginning of the XV century) there are 3 references to pop Bogomil.

The first is: "[To] Pop Bogomil, who under Peter, the king of Bulgaria, embraced this Manichean heresy and spread it in the Bulgarian land, adding that Christ our God was born of the Holy Mother of God and only beams Mary in appearance. and it was apparently crucified, and the flesh that was perceived lifted it up and left it in the air, to him, to his past and present disciples, called apostles, anathema. "Pop Bogomil, his apostles and disciples are anathematized in the synod of Boril.

Elsewhere in the synod we read: They, like some cruel wolves, ruthlessly squandered Christ's flock, for which he shed his pure blood.

The third mention is again accompanied by the anathema: "[On] the triplicate Bogomil and his disciple Michael and Theodore, and Well, and Stephen, and Basil, and Peter, and the rest of his disciples and like-minded people, who glorified that the incarnation of Christ became one. , not that he has received flesh from the holy and purified Our Lady of the Virgin, to them all anathema! "

From the 11th to the 12th centuries, a Russian copy of Krumchaya, the work of the scribe Ephraim, dated the following information about Bogomilism, dates: "During the time of the orthodox Tsar Peter, there was a pop in the Bulgarian lands named Bohunemil who spoke of the Lord's cross so offensively: "If anyone kills a king's son with a tree, can that tree be kind to the king?" He also said of this: "If you bow and kiss the cross, you must also bow and kiss the donkey because Christ was riding on the donkey." In several other Russian church books, pop Bogomil has mentioned cat one of the Bulgarian authors of heretical books and apocryphal literature.

In a Byzantine monument, a transcript of the Synodics on the Sunday of Orthodoxy, among the anathemas addressed to the Byzantine philosopher John Ital (XI c.), There is an anathema against pop Bogomil: "a curse against pop Bogomil, which instigated and dispersed during the reign of Peter, the king of Bulgaria, the Manichean heresy in every city and region. "

Two interesting legends are worth mentioning about the personality of pop Bogomil. Among the population of Babuna Mountain, in the Welsh villages of Bogomila and Nezilovo, present-day Republic of Macedonia, it is said that pop Bogomil is a native of the village of Bogomila, even his grave was near the village. A small chapel was built around the tomb, where the Bogomils gathered to pay homage to him, and then they went to a cave near the village of Nezhilovo. Another legend goes that Pop Bogomil is a native of the village of Gorno Pavlikeni, Lovechko (the old name of the village was probably Kalugeritsa). In the locality of Kamenishte, near the village, Bogomil was killed by his opponents. According to legend, there was his grave.

Peter of Sicily also talks about the planned spread of heresies in the Bulgarian lands. In 869 he spent several months among the Paulicians in the town of Tefrika, prompting him to address the head of the Bulgarian Church with a warning about the Paulician sect: how and for what reasons she went madly to such apostasy. For some are no different from others, and the Paulicians themselves are Manichaeans, connecting the heinous heresies they have invented with the heresies of the aforesaid and digging a precipice. ”(()

"And I also heard from those ungodly fools that they would send some of them to the lands of Bulgaria to tear away some people from the Orthodox faith and draw them to their wicked heresy, trusting at the beginning of the divine sermon and thinking that they will easily be able to sow their weeds in the midst of pure and true grain. "

This early warning seems to be a good testimony of what will happen in the next 60 - 70 years, how the Pavlikian and Manichean heresy will find a fertile soil in the Bulgarian lands, where they will develop through the mediation of Pop Bogomil and his apostles to the new doctrine called blasphemy. Here are some more information from Peter Sicilian about the nature of the sects mentioned:

"Therefore, those wicked ones, when they first speak to someone, pretend to have a good temper, and insidiously approve and highly affirm all Orthodox Christian dogmas. They claim illegally and too ignorantly to profess God - the Holy Trinity allegorically - and curse those who do not profess it. They say, if it is dishonorable and ungodly, that our Lord and God have incarnated into a virgin, and they anathematize those who do not profess it. They speak in one way with their mouth, and in another with their heart about everything related to the incarnation of the Lord, and willingly anathematize Manes and the other wicked heretics, as did Paul Samosatsky. Because they had other teachers in their evil teaching and other leaders, much worse than them, as will be clarified shortly. And just like a mollusc and a chameleon, they change according to the moment, their position or their face to catch one of the more gullible ones. "

It is clear from the words of the scribe that there is not much difference between the different sects, which is why they change their place and name so easily, but they remain almost exactly identical in dogmatics and ritual practices.

If we rely on such an interpretation, it will be easier to understand the rapid upsurge of worship in the lands of the Western Balkans (Serbia, Bosnia), as far as Italy and France. During the 1167 in San Felix de Carmen, near Toulouse, France, a grand meeting of Italian and French pilgrims was held under the guidance of the Patriarch of Bogomil, the "perfect" Bogomil, the Bulgarian Nikita. In these places, the Bogomils were known as Cathars (from the Greek "pure") or else - Albigensians. The Catholic Church has made great efforts over the centuries to deal with the influence of the sect. There is even a Crusade (1209 - 1229 AD) against supporters of this sect in Languedoc, southern France.

There is another completely different reading about the advent and development of worship, which I mentioned at the beginning, and now I will also say a few words. Bogomilism is seen as a purely Bulgarian phenomenon (even pre-Bulgarian, coming from the Bulgarian land before it was inhabited by Bulgarians.) The model of mutual influence to the degree of penetration and merging of sects into one another - from Manichean ( 2 century) through Masalianism (4 century), Nestorianism (5 century), peacockism (7 century), to Bogomilism (10 century), and even to Qatari (10 century) - was abandoned. It is pointed out that in the Roman Empire, where the most common Thracian orphism from the 6 century BC. further (Thrace and Macedonia), the environment is particularly favorable for Christianization of the population. This is because the cult of Thracian orphism requires a belief in immortality, as the Christian cult requires; in this sense, the two are easily interchangeable. Whereas in Hellenic / Roman religion such a thing is uncharacteristic.

V. Nikolova translates folk songs from the villages of Rogachevo, Tetovsko, Macedonia, Elena and others, which features a song motif that has a lot to do with the Thracian orphism: the motif "Embedded Bride". The embedded bride in the first song voluntarily sacrifices herself so that her husband can build a home. Master Daniel tells her:

"I had a bad dream,

You hear, love, I envy you,

To build a ram into a yuppie,

If you want - we will make a house

If you don't - we can't do that. "

The bride replies:

"I want, I want, how to do it,

Face to stay in the white mahdan,

Kad white is walking the white people,

Look at my white face,

Have any person nailed,

It is nailed down, it is built up ... "

The song motif is interpreted in terms of the ritual practices of Thracian orphism. The king-priest-hero is a demiurge, i. master, creator, creator of the world. He builds a house (Master Daniel), but actually manages the universe. Sacrifice, human or animal, is required to accomplish the device. By "white people", the song refers to the initiates in the rituals of Thracian orphism (because only the initiates understood the symbolism), and the bride's "white face" indicates that she herself is among the initiates. The sustainability of the cult practices of orphism in Thrace and Macedonia favors a connection between orphism and Christianity, which will grow into the so-called. blasphemy. This does not exclude the mediation in the formation of the blasphemy of the mentioned and unquestioned by other specialists of the Eastern sects (Manichean, Masalian, Nestorian and Paulic). Moreover, the "Secret Book" dates very early, in the first and second centuries AD, when the Eastern sects in question were not yet in circulation.

Either way Bogomilism is a Bulgarian phenomenon, and as such it is good to find its own correct interpretation.

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