The bagpipe is a wind and fur instrument; it is the most popular folk instrument in Bulgaria after the kaval and the gadfly. It is found in almost all ethnographic areas of the country. The best Gaydarji schools can be named from Southern Bulgaria - Thrace and Strandzha, Northeast Bulgaria - Ludogorie (Deliorman) and Dobrudja. In the Rhodopes, the so-called "caba" - a bagpipe characterized by its low volume, is widespread.
In Bulgaria, the bagpipe is used, on the one hand, as a solo instrument, and on the other - to accompany folk singers (especially in the Rhodope region and sometimes with two or more bagpipes), in an orchestra of folk instruments together with kaval, string, tambourine and others.
The bagpipe consists of: fur, hubs, bellows, bagpipes, whistles and a three-joint bagpipe. The fur is made of goat or lambskin. It is used to tie the three hubs in which the bellows, bagpipes and handle are inserted, as well as to introduce air from the performer. The hubs are three, made of dogwood or antlers of deer, goat, ox and others. They are used to tie the bellows and to insert the necks of the bellows, the bagpipe and the handle.
The blower is a single small cone-shaped tube with a connecting neck for insertion into the hub. A small circular skin flap is placed at the lower end of the neck. It serves to block the opening of the blower when the performer takes a breath.
The bagpipe - the most important part of the bagpipe - is a wooden conical (inside and outside) elongated tube. It is made of timber or plum wood. At its upper end there is a connecting neck with a small groove, in which is placed the construction (screech). The 7 finger holes are located on the front of the pitching pin and one on the back (opposite the first small hole) one for the thumb of the hand. Characteristic and very important for the pitching is the small finger hole on the front. Through it is a small tube of duck or chicken feathers, which the bagpipers call a "messenger" or "mutter." Thanks to it and through various combinations of fingers all tones are obtained along the whole volume of the pitching machine.
The spider is a cylindrical tube made of reeds, jumps or elderberry. Its upper end is clogged with wax or cork and its lower end is open to the passage of flickering air. A tongue is slit on the body of the spider. It is the source of the sound. Thin cotton threads are wound at the lower end of the spider on the tongue and body so long as they hold the spider adhered to the walls of the groove in the neck of the pitchfork. These threads also play a role in tuning. When they wind higher on the tongue and body, the whistle plays higher, and when they wind down, it plays lower.
The crank is a three-cylindrical wooden pipe made of timber or plum wood. There are no holes in it. It consists of three different lengthwise and outwardly shaped parts - assemblies, or as the bagpipers call them - "eclipses". The first part has two connecting necks - one, shorter and thicker (in which the squeak is placed), is inserted into the hub of the fur, and the other - thinner and longer, is inserted into the second part of the rudder . The second part has only one connecting neck, which serves as a connection between the second and third assembly. The last, third part is neckless. About ten centimeters from the lower end, it expands its diameter to resonate the acoustic tone. Each thread is wrapped with thread or cork is placed as long as the parts are held together and can be easily shortened or lengthened when adjusted. The rudder spike is similar to the pitching device, but is almost twice the length and inside diameter of the tube. The pen is used to produce the acoustic tone that accompanies the pitching tune.
The safari is a small Balkan, one-piece, wooden, wind folk instrument such as kaval and shepherd's whistle. It is equipped with six finger holes, arranged in series along the barrel, without resonator openings.
The total length of the mandrel is from 25 to 35 cm, but sometimes it can reach up to 50 cm. The outer diameter is about 2 cm and the wall thickness is 2 mm. The mouthpiece at the front end is sharpened on the inner edge, which is why the trunnion is kept slightly sideways when playing. The lack of a spider makes it difficult for beginners as it requires serious mastery of playing.
Recently, cuffs are also made with the 7 finger hole, with the additional seventh hole below the top hole on the opposite side of the barrel.
The Taurus has limited technical capabilities in a diatonic major tone range with a maximum of 2 octaves. The sound is higher than that of the kaval. It is used as a solo instrument and is a part of the brass band in the folk orchestra.
The tool is relatively easy to manufacture and has therefore gained widespread use in the past. In the beginning they made it from a young elder, on which the soft core is easily removed. But the trunnion of this material is extremely durable, because when the wood dries it cracks. Later it is made of wood species with better quality wood - ash, dogwood, maple, hornbeam and more. In the past, oil or grease impregnation was used to protect the wooden parts, and nowadays by immersion in special solutions. The barrel is made of wood, metal or plastic.
The tambourine is a musical instrument from the group of string instruments. It is typical for Bulgaria, especially for the southeastern parts and Pirin, the Republic of Macedonia and the Balkan countries. It is similar to the Middle Eastern instruments from Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan, known by the names tanbur, tambour, sharkia, budurk.
The tambourine is a folk stringed musical instrument with a pear-shaped body, made of maple or pear, measuring 22-45 cm long, 12-26 cm wide and 9-20 cm thick. The upper board is 3 mm thick and is made of spruce. Two sound holes with a diameter of 1,5-2 cm are cut on it. There are also vestibules with one opening, but then it is larger. The fretboard is approximately as narrow as a violin, but much longer. In its upper part there are the keys (pins, sticks) with which the tool is adjusted and which usually have a T-shape. Near the sound hole is placed the donkey, on which the strings are stretched. They are all metal, and their thickness corresponds approximately to the string "E" in the violin and mandolin. The sound is extracted by plectrum (feather).
The ocarina is a clay wind folk musical instrument with an oval shape. Its standard length is 12-15 cm. Ocarina is distributed all over the world, and in our country mainly in Northwestern Bulgaria.
The flute is a musical instrument from the group of wooden wind instruments. Characteristic of Bulgarian folk music.
It is found in almost all folklore areas, being an integral part of the folk art of Thrace, Ludogorie and Dobrudzha.
It is a cylindrical three-joint wooden pipe. The upper part has a rounded end and serves as a mouthpiece. The middle part has 8 holes for the fingers, the lower part has resonator holes - chokes. Its device is extremely simple - in practice it is a hollow tube with a number of holes. Nowadays, the flute is composed of 3 parts, which are assembled. At the lower end of the first two parts there is a coil of thread, which aims to better seal the joints. The material from which the kaval is most often made is dogwood, almond, apricot, boxwood. The wood must be strong, dense, free of pores, to obtain a deep and clear sound.
Several types of kaval are known: PE kaval, DO kaval, SI flat kaval, LA kaval and MI kaval. The LA kaval is extremely difficult to play because of the size of the instrument. For him, the starting tone is the LA of a big octave. The most commonly used kaval are the PE, DO and SI flat kaval.
Chan is a musical percussion instrument of the bell group. It has a conical shape. It is used in the Bulgarian folklore, in the dances of the mummers and as a signal instrument in the domestic animals. A series of many tubs is called a nozzle.
Traditionally, the double is known as a musical instrument preferred by shepherds. Legend has it that many shepherds managed to teach their flocks to graze on their own to the sound of one melody from their twin, and to return to the village to the sound of another. Twins often resounded with lively dance tunes and traditional villagers.
The Bulgarian double is a double flute (flute), made of a single piece of wood, through which two parallel pipes are carved. The body is square and elongated, approximately 30-40 cm long and most often made of ash, plum, pear, dogwood, boxwood or walnut wood. Less common are tools made up of two separate pieces of wood (one for each barrel), tightly spliced and sculpted together into a common square body.
The main tune is played on the right barrel (pitchfork), provided with six openings (sometimes with an additional seventh opening on the reverse), while the left barrel (rudder) provides a single low pitch (mute tone) that accompanies and creates the characteristic for the two-voice instrument.
The double is usually found in the Tones of Re, Do, and La, and has a tonal volume of two octaves.