There is one common mistake. When it comes to the "Macedonian revolutionaries", some of us greet the subject with great enthusiasm, while others are a little grumpy and disappointed, as if it were an irregularity or a taboo. In this case, I am referring to the opinions expressed in the cases of Gotse Delchev, Dame Gruev, Yane Sandanski, Todor Alexandrov, etc. The Guzni say: "Let's leave these things to them! She became what she became. Let us stop dividing and opposing each other through history and historical figures. ”This plausible pretext is very acceptable at first glance. Why argue about history, isn't it better to get around inappropriate topics?

My opinion is that there are no inappropriate topics in history. Moments of historical opposition (one nation to another) should not be silenced, but made meaningful. How will we make sense of the work of the Bulgarian freedom fighters after 1878? Of course, as something positive. According to their strength, they fought for people's freedoms. They did the same Hadji Dimitar and Stefan Karadja, Vasil Levski, Hristo Botev, Georgi Benkovski? I do not believe that anyone today will seriously challenge the significance of the deeds of those who died heroically for Bulgarian freedom before 1878. In this line of thought, why deny or disregard those who died heroically for Bulgarian freedom after 1878? This is wrong. Let's assume that every history lover knows who Gotse Delchev, Dame Gruev and Todor Alexandrov are. There is a lot of talk, writing and making movies about them.

I want to share a little more about some other Bulgarian national heroes who sacrificed themselves for the freedom of the Motherland. I will do this also because these lesser-known heroes were highly revered by the people during their lifetime. This veneration is evident from the folk songs and stories that have preserved them to this day in the family memory.

I will write a few words about the Apostle Petkov (known as the "Sun of Enidward") and about Marko Lerinski (Marko voevoda - by birth name Georgi Ivanov). I chose these among many others because they are not so popular with the mass reader, but there are reasons to be. They sacrificed themselves and died for the freedom of Bulgaria. The two are very different in temperament and outlook on life - going down different paths before engaging in organized struggle.

The Apostle Petkov, called the Post of the Voivode and the "Sun of Enivard", has a Haidut past. He was born in 1869 in the village of Boymitsa, does not receive his education and remains illiterate. At 23 he went out with his brother "in the woods". They hail in the area of ​​Gevgelija and Enijevardarsko, in their native land. Later, the Voivode's post became involved in organized struggle, but it was very arrogant and conflicted - a character shaped by the influence of a free-living life away from people. He has no inherent discipline, likes to dispose of himself and often exceeds his rights. The American journalist Albert Sioniksen calls him "the Macedonian Robin Hood". He protects his compatriots in his native land, but he also uses many tyrannical methods. In 1905 he sent a letter to Exarch Joseph against the head of a church organization in his native land:

"I wonder why you hold him such a lying and cowardly chairman, when a people's target doesn't chase him, and if you don't get him out of here like a dog kill him. I kiss your holy right hand and remain reverently your child in Christ. Apostle of the Duke. "

The voivode's post is a cruel and primal man, but firmly attached to Bulgarian. It is his cause, and then everything else is. The Greek Pinelopi Delta writes of him: “Apostle Petkov was the most fearsome archcommittee (…) no one could capture him even to meet him. He was the invisible demon who felt everywhere but was nowhere to be seen. " It is the only comet compared to the sun. From the period of the Bulgarian national liberation struggles after 1878 there is no more beloved and more accurate than it among the people.

"The population became so attached to his father-in-law that he dedicated more than one song to him and named him the most expressive name - the Eniwardarian Sun - a sun that cuts through his rays the darkness of his slave bondage and warms his heart with sweet hope." (Hristo Silyanov)

The most famous folk song for the Postol Voivode was born after his tragic death (he was poisoned by traitors in 1911). She is known to Dimitar Talev (a native of this region), with her begins his novel "I hear your voices":

"Sit down, tell him his pity, and bye, bye Postole, at night time in the moonlight. On the way, they wait, and bye, bye Postole, on the way, they wait up to three more poses: first posi - Greek Andarti, second posi - Turkish gendari, third posi - sworn spies.

Opposite, in character and mannerisms of the Post of the Voivode, is the other one mentioned - Marco Lerinski (Marco Voivode). Georgi Ivanov was born in 1862. He joined the Bulgarian army in 1883. Due to the qualities demonstrated in the Serbian-Bulgarian War (1885), he received the nickname Heroic. After 1900, under the influence of Gotse Delchev and Gyorche Petrov, he joined the Bulgarian National Liberation Movement, leading a detachment in Lerinsko. He is known among the people as Marco Voivode.

Marco Lerinski was an extremely harsh and disciplined man, typical of the military. Like no other, he was able to bring order and increase the morale of his fighters, demonstrating a personal example. This turned his troupe into a school from which some of the bravest voices in the world came out - Mitre Vlach, Dina Klyusov and Lecho Nastev, as well as the greatest memoirist of the revolutionary movement - Hristo Silyanov. Marco Lerinski did not shy away from money and expensive things, never complaining about anything. He was able to spend days without eating and sleeping. He demanded it from others. Once, he was very angry and almost abandoned his company. They had to hide from the hammers for a while and people started to yell. Marco shouted to them: Where did they go when two days without eating could not endure without haste. He walked open, with his jacket unbuttoned. He never wore soggy clothes. They asked him why he did not dress better, he was the voivode, people could see him. To which he replied that he would not rejoice in the enemy with his new clothes, which killed him. He was killed after an ambush in the village of Putele. The troop gave him three casualties, one of them the voivode. The local Turkish deputy was very pleased to hear about the incident because Marco Voivode was already a symbol of heroism and the fight for freedom. But he was tormented by an ugly suspicion. Could any of these three ragged corpses belong to the famous Marco Pasha (as the Turks called him)? And the people rejoiced and said: "Marco is alive, he transferred with a team of heroes to Vodensko, from which he will be retained by his team to punish the traitors." Traitors and Turks gritted their teeth. Indeed, Marco did not please them with new clothes at his death. Since then, the song has been sung in this region:


"This is Friday, Saturday, tomorrow is holy Sunday

Marco Voivode arrived in this village of Patel,

Damn you spies, The Voivode Brand has delivered

Nadojoa Turkish camps, the voivode sardis brand.

Zafati fights big, Marko voivode is killed.

Damn you white spies, Voivode Brand has passed him over! "



"Marco was killed in the village of Putele (Lerinsko) not quite as he had dreamed - without waiting for the end. And perhaps better ... The Macedonian slave, from Pelister to Voden and from the Marihov Mountains to Kostur, will not forget the great man who first raised his faith in him so that he can do miracles - he will never forget Marko voivode. "

When it comes to "Macedonian Voivodes", we should not think in this context that only people born in the geographical area of ​​Macedonia are considered. Apostle Petkov is a native of Boymitsa (present-day Aksiupoli), Central Macedonia. But Marco Lerinski is from Kotel. The prominent participant in the movement is Hristo Chernopeev from the village of Dermantsi, Lovechko. Krustyu Asenov (brother of Hadji Dimitar), also known as "Ogniiot Daskal", is from Sliven. Vlado Chernozemski, born Velichko Kerin, is from Velingrad, etc. There are many other similar examples.

There is nothing disturbing in the fact that the freedom fighters of their countrymen are from different parts of this homeland. Not to mention that foreigners, such as the Russian officers Adam Kalmikov and Louis Voitkevich, are involved in the military actions of the rebellious Bulgarians, who together with their units are actively involved in the preparation of the Kresna - Razlog Uprising (1878). It should not be thought that the "Macedonian Voivodes" (I deliberately put the term in quotation marks in order to grasp its conditional meaning) limited their activities only to the geographical area of ​​Macedonia. After the 1878, the Bulgarian National Liberation Movement also extended to the parts of Dobrudzha and Thrace that remained outside Bulgaria, and after the First World War it also extended to the Western Suburbs.

Something must know. As the Bulgarian National Liberation Movement (as well as any other such) needs coordination, this leads to the establishment of an organization that has set such goals. The names of Gotse Delchev, Dame Gruev, Todor Alexandrov, Ivan (Vanche) Mihailov and others are associated with this organization. The name of the organization, according to its earliest open statute, is the Bulgarian Macedonian-Adrian Revolutionary Committees (BOMORK). Then its names vary according to time and situation. But it is noteworthy that the committees are originally Bulgarian and the scope of action of these committees is labeled "Macedonian - Edirne". Therefore, in their perimeter of action are all Bulgarian lands in the south, remaining under Ottoman rule after the Berlin Congress (1878), and Macedonia and Thrace.

Therefore, I commented that the term "Macedonian voivode" is conditional because they do not operate only in the Macedonian area. The most striking example of a participant in the revolutionary struggles of the Bulgarians, both in Macedonia and Thrace, is Tane Nikolov (Tane Voivode), a native of Haskovo. Even before the end of World War I, he participated in battles in the Gornozhumaysko (Blagoevgrad) and Gumurdzhinsko (Thrace). And after the war, it operated mainly in Thrace. The mentioned victims of Bulgarian freedom should be respected, and their deeds should be much more popular than they are today.

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